LOCOMOTOR DISABILITY

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Locomotor disability means problem in moving from one place to another, that is, disability in legs.

But, in general, it is taken as a disability related to bones, joints and muscles. It causes problems in a person's movements (like walking, picking or holding things in hand, etc.

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RPwD Act 2016

Locomotor Disability, one of the 21 disabilities that is covered under the RPWD ACT 2016. Around, 1.6%of the Indian population is believed to have locomotor disabilities.

General Entitlements:

Persons with disabilities are eligible for income tax deduction under Section 80U. Deduction of Rs. 50,000 is provided to those with disability in the range of 40 per cent to 80 per cent. Additional benefits such as reservation in higher education (not less than 5%), government jobs (not less than 4 %), reservation in allocation of land, development programmes.

(for more information read RPwD ACT 2016 under ASK T.I.N.A).

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Types:

There are various degrees and types of Locomotor Disability. Some main categories of Locomotor Disability are as follows:

  • Locomotor Disability of Upper Limb

  • Locomotor Disability of Lower Limb

  • Locomotor Disability of Trunk (Spine)

  • Locomotor Disability in case Short Stature/ Dwarfism

  • Locomotor Disability in Amputees

  • Longitudinal deficiencies- Radial and Ulnar are most common

Some common conditions that can cause locomotor disability are

  • Polio

  • Cerebral Palsy (Note: Cerebral palsy is included under locomotor disabilities under RPwD ACT of 2016.Birth asphyxia is one of the major causes of cerebral palsy.Cerebral palsy was found to be associated with premature births.Cerebral palsy and mental retardation may overlap however there are many children with cerebral palsy with normal intelligence. It is important for accurate early diagnosis by doctors to ensure they get need based interventions).

  • Amputation

  • Spinal Injuries

  • Injuries of Head

  • Soft Tissues

  • Fractures

  • Muscular Dystrophies

  • Paralysis

  • Dwarfism

  • Neurological conditions

  • Arthritis

Assistive technology for Locomotor Disability:

Depending on the type of Locomotor Disability treatment, rehabilitation and therapy can be undertaken. In most cases the disability is permanent and affected person is dependent on mobility aids such as wheelchairs, crutches, tricycle, and sticks.

About Poliomyelitis (Polio)/Post Polio

Polio (poliomyelitis) is a disorder caused by a viral infection (poliovirus) that can affect the whole body, including muscles and nerves.

Accommodating Employees with Poliomyelitis (Polio)/Post Polio

 

People with post-polio syndrome may develop some of the limitations discussed below, but seldom develop all of them. Also, the degree of limitation will vary among individuals. Be aware that not all people with post-polio syndrome will need accommodations to perform their jobs and many others may only need a few accommodations. The following is only a sample of the possibilities available. Numerous other accommodation solutions may exist.

 

Questions to Consider:

  1. What limitations is the employee experiencing?

  2. How do these limitations affect the employee and the employee’s job performance?

  3. What specific job tasks are problematic as a result of these limitations?

  4. What accommodations are available to reduce or eliminate these problems? Are all possible resources being used to determine possible accommodations?

  5. Once accommodations are in place, would it be useful to meet with the employee to evaluate the effectiveness of the accommodations and to determine whether additional accommodations are needed?

  6. Do supervisory personnel and employees need training?

Accommodation Ideas:

By Limitation

  • Decreased Stamina/Fatigue

  • Overall Body Weakness/Strength

  • Pain

About Arthritis

Arthritis is a condition that includes inflammatory and non inflammatory diseases that affect the body's joints and connective tissue. Tendons, cartilage, blood vessels, and internal organs are also often affected. There are more than 100 different types of arthritis, but two of the more common are osteoarthritis and rheumatoid. Pain and swelling are often associated with arthritis.

Accommodating Employees with Arthritis

People with arthritis may develop some of the limitations discussed below, but seldom develop all of them. Also, the degree of limitation will vary among individuals. Be aware that not all people with arthritis will need accommodations to perform their jobs and many others may only need a few accommodations. The following is only a sample of the possibilities available. Numerous other accommodation solutions may exist.

 

Questions to Consider:

  1. What limitations is the employee experiencing?

  2. How do these limitations affect the employee and the employee’s job performance?

  3. What specific job tasks are problematic as a result of these limitations?

  4. What accommodations are available to reduce or eliminate these problems? Are all possible resources being used to determine possible accommodations?

  5. Once accommodations are in place, would it be useful to meet with the employee to evaluate the effectiveness of the accommodations and to determine whether additional accommodations are needed?

  6. Do supervisory personnel and employees need training?

 

Key Accommodations:

  • Limiting lifting, reaching, pushing, and pulling by job restructuring

  • Extra time to complete paperwork

  • Voice to text software

  • Ability to dictate notes using a voice recorder and have another staff member input the notes (if inputting the information is a marginal function of your job)

  • Grip Aids, to help with holding a stylus

  • Reallocating documentation duties, if marginal

  • Handwriting Recognition Software

  • Reassignment

  • Using Proper Lifting Techniques

  • Reallocating lifting duties, if marginal

  • Providing assistance moving objects, to reduce weight

  • Organizing items in a way that reduces the need to move or lift items

  • Reducing weight to be lifted by separating items into smaller groups

  • Reassigning an employee to a modified duty position or modifying duties by removing the lifting duties

  • Periodic rest breaks to get up and move around 

  • Modified break schedule so that you can stretch your legs when needed

  • Using break reminder software to remember to get-up and move around

  • Alternating between sitting and standing while working by using a sit/stand workstation

  • Ergonomic/adjustable office chair

  • Work at home, where employee can lie down, sit, stand, move freely

  • Providing structured breaks as a physical outlet

  • Reducing stress triggers – these strategies will vary according to triggers, but see Dealing with Stress in the Workplace

  • Adjusting supervisory methods

  • Accessing EAP services for coping with stress

  • Providing a private workspace

  • Reducing distractions

  • Allowing breaks for mental fatigue, including short walks, getting up for a drink of water, and rotating through varied tasks

  • Allowing breaks to contact a support person when anxiety is triggered

  • Restructuring job so the most difficult tasks are performed at the time of day the employee has the most mental energy or stamina

  • Providing/designating uninterrupted time for tasks that require significant concentration

Telework, Work from Home, Working Remotely

Accommodation Ideas

By Limitation

  • Balancing

  • Decreased Stamina/Fatigue

  • Grasping

  • Handling/Fingering

  • Lifting

  • Overall Body Coordination

  • Pain

  • Photo Sensitivity

  • Sitting

  • Sleeping/Stay Awake

  • Standing

  • Stress Intolerance

  • Temperature Sensitivity

  • Walking

About Leg Impairment

Leg impairments can arise from injuries, cancer, arthritis, diabetes, burns, and other conditions. They can be isolated to the leg or exist as a part of another condition. Limitations most often affect walking and can be painful. 

Accommodating Employees with Leg Impairment

People with limitations from leg impairment may develop some of the limitations discussed below, but seldom develop all of them. Also, the degree of limitation will vary among individuals. Be aware that not all people with leg impairments will need accommodations to perform their jobs and many others may only need a few accommodations. The following is only a sample of the possibilities available. Numerous other accommodation solutions may exist.

 

Questions to Consider:

  1. What limitations is the employee experiencing?

  2. How do these limitations affect the employee and the employee’s job performance?

  3. What specific job tasks are problematic as a result of these limitations?

  4. What accommodations are available to reduce or eliminate these problems? Are all possible resources being used to determine possible accommodations?

  5. Once accommodations are in place, would it be useful to meet with the employee to evaluate the effectiveness of the accommodations and to determine whether additional accommodations are needed?

  6. Do supervisory personnel and employees need training?

 

Key Accommodations:

  • Limiting lifting, reaching, pushing, and pulling by job restructuring

  • Using Proper Lifting Techniques

  • Reallocating lifting duties, if marginal

  • Providing assistance moving objects, to reduce weight

  • Organizing items in a way that reduces the need to move or lift items

  • Reducing weight to be lifted by separating items into smaller groups

  • Reassigning an employee to a modified duty position or modifying duties by removing the lifting duties

Accommodation Ideas: By Limitation

  • Balancing

  • Bending

  • Climbing

  • Kneeling

  • Lifting

  • Pain

  • Sitting

  • Squatting

  • Standing

  • Walking

About Hand Amputation

An individual may have use of one hand for a variety of reasons. It could be from an injury or amputation. It may also be from a repetitive stress injury like carpal tunnel or it could be congenital. For some jobs an individual may not need an accommodation. In others, modifications may be needed to make the individual more productive. 

 

Questions to Consider:

  1. What limitations is the employee experiencing?

  2. How do these limitations affect the employee and the employee’s job performance?

  3. What specific job tasks are problematic as a result of these limitations?

  4. What accommodations are available to reduce or eliminate these problems? Are all possible resources being used to determine possible accommodations?

  5. Once accommodations are in place, would it be useful to meet with the employee to evaluate the effectiveness of the accommodations and to determine whether additional accommodations are needed?

  6. Do supervisory personnel and employees need training?

 

Accommodating Employees with Hand Amputation

 

People with limitations from a hand amputation may develop some of the limitations discussed below, but seldom develop all of them. Also, the degree of limitation will vary among individuals. Be aware that not all people who are aging will need accommodations to perform their jobs and many others may only need a few accommodations. The following is only a sample of the possibilities available. Numerous other accommodation solutions may exist.

Accommodation Ideas: By Limitation

  • Use of One Hand/Arm

​ About Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)/Lou Gehrig's Disease

 

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), often referred to as "Lou Gehrig's disease," is a progressive neuro-degenerative disease that attacks nerve cells in the brain and the spinal cord. ALS is a progressive neuro-degenerative disease affecting the nerve cells of the spinal cord and brain. As ALS progresses, the motor neurons that span from the brain to the spinal cord to the muscles are destroyed, leading to loss of muscle control. This can lead to involuntary muscle movements as well as the inability to speak, swallow, and breathe. Two types of ALS are known: Familial (which is inherited) and Sporadic.

 

Questions to Consider:

  1. What limitations is the employee experiencing?

  2. How do these limitations affect the employee and the employee’s job performance?

  3. What specific job tasks are problematic as a result of these limitations?

  4. What accommodations are available to reduce or eliminate these problems? Are all possible resources being used to determine possible accommodations?

  5. Once accommodations are in place, would it be useful to meet with the employee to evaluate the effectiveness of the accommodations and to determine whether additional accommodations are needed?

  6. Do supervisory personnel and employees need training?

 

Accommodating Employees with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)/Lou Gehrig's Disease

People with limitations from ALS may develop some of the limitations discussed below, but seldom develop all of them. Also, the degree of limitation will vary among individuals. Be aware that not all people with ALS will need accommodations to perform their jobs and many others may only need a few accommodations. The following is only a sample of the possibilities available. Numerous other accommodation solutions may exist.

Accommodation Ideas: By Limitation

  • Decreased Stamina/Fatigue

  • Overall Body Coordination

  • Overall Body Weakness/Strength

  • Spasm/Tic/Tremor/Blinking

  • Stress Intolerance

About Bladder Impairment

Bladder impairments tend to be caused by neurologic conditions, including spinal cord injuries, disease, cerebrovascular accidents, brain injuries, multiple sclerosis, and dementia. However, other conditions can also trigger bladder impairments, such as pregnancy, childbirth, weight, and medications. Some of the most common symptoms of a bladder impairment can be an inability to hold urine (functional incontinence), a strong need to urinate (urge incontinence), and leakage due to activity (stress incontinence). These can also lead to infections, stones, or renal damage. Interstitial cystitis is a specific bladder condition that can cause pressure and pain in the bladder. It also has symptoms similar to other bladder disorders, such as frequent urination, pain during sex, and waking at night to urinate.

Questions to Consider

  1. What limitations is the employee experiencing?

  2. How do these limitations affect the employee and the employee’s job performance?

  3. What specific job tasks are problematic as a result of these limitations?

  4. What accommodations are available to reduce or eliminate these problems? Are all possible resources being used to determine possible accommodations?

  5. Once accommodations are in place, would it be useful to meet with the employee to evaluate the effectiveness of the accommodations and to determine whether additional accommodations are needed?

  6. Do supervisory personnel and employees need training?

 

Accommodating Employees with Bladder Impairment

 

People with bladder impairments may develop some of the limitations discussed below, but seldom develop all of them. Also, the degree of limitation will vary among individuals. Be aware that not all people with bladder impairments will need accommodations to perform their jobs and many others may only need a few accommodations. The following is only a sample of the possibilities available. Numerous other accommodation solutions may exist.

Accommodation Ideas: By Limitation

  • Decreased Stamina/Fatigue

  • Effect of/Receive Medical Treatment

  • Lifting

  • Toileting/Grooming Issue