BLINDNESS

Self Speak: Watch Sri. Srinvas talk about Blindness

The term “blindness” generally refers to a lack of usable vision. Individuals with total blindness are unable to see anything with either eye.

Legal blindness is defined as 20/200 or less in the better eye with the best possible correction. Many individuals who are considered legally blind still have some degree of useable vision

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ACCOMMODATING STUDENTS WITH BLINDNESS

People with blindness may develop some of the limitations discussed below, but seldom develop all of them. Also, the degree of limitation will vary among individuals. Be aware that not all people will need accommodations to perform their jobs and many others may only need a few accommodations. The following is only a sample of the possibilities available. Numerous other accommodation solutions may exist.

QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER:
  1. What limitations is the student experiencing?

  2. How do these limitations affect the student and the student’s job performance?

  3. What specific job tasks are problematic as a result of these limitations?

  4. What accommodations are available to reduce or eliminate these problems? Are all possible resources being used to determine possible accommodations?

  5. Has the student been consulted regarding possible accommodations? 

  6. Once accommodations are in place, would it be useful to meet with the student to evaluate the effectiveness of the accommodations and to determine whether additional accommodations are needed?

  7. Do supervisory personnel and students need training?

ACCOMMODATION IDEAS
 
Products

By Limitation of: Blind - Total

 
  • Aide/Assistant/Attendant

  •  Braille Labelers

  •  Computer Braille Display

  •  Computer Phone Software

  •  Detectable Warning Surfaces

  •  Flexible Schedule

  •  Headsets - Computer (USB, VOIP etc.)

  •  High Visibility Floor Tape and Paint

  •  Job Restructuring

  •  Keyboard Tops and Labels

  •  Optical Character Recognition (OCR) Systems - Scan

  •  Qualified Reader

  • ​Ridesharing/Carpooling

  • Screen Reading Software and Training

  • Service Animal

  •  Stair Tread/Textured Tape

  •  Tactile Dots and Markers

  •  Talking Bar Code Scanner/Reader

  •  Talking Cash Register

  •  Talking Color Detector

  •  Talking Credit Card Terminal

  •  Talking Money Identifier

  •  Telephone Light Sensor

  •  Telework, Work from Home, Working Remotely

  • Worksite Redesign / Modified Workspace

By Limitation of: Work-Related Function -Commute & Parking
 

COMMUTE

  • Flexible Schedule

  •  Ridesharing/Carpooling

  •  Telework, Work from Home, Working Remotely

  •  Transportation Assistance

  •  Van Conversion

  •  Walkers

​PARKING

  • Flexible Schedule

  • Telework, Work from Home, Working Remotely

  • Appropriate Reader services must be provided during half of every workday.

  • Magnification services should be relevant to the student needs.

  •  The school/college should ensure the existing furniture arrangement does run injuries of students.

  • Screen Reading Software.

For Schools
 
  • Appropriate Reader services must be provided during half of every workday.

  • Magnification services should be relevant to the student needs.

  • The school/college should ensure the existing furniture arrangement does run injuries of students.

  • Screen Reading Software.

For Teachers
 
  • Children with difficulty in seeing can learn like any other student in the class.

  • Remember sense organs are only windows to learn. What a brain cannot see eyes cannot see the other sense organs and assistive technology is a great support to learning without barriers. Provide audio lectures a week in advance to help the student to listen before the class begins.

  • Encourage to use laptops /I pads in classrooms

  • Always use names.

  • Don't gesture, always verbalize. 

  • Avoid asking if a student can see something.

  • Correct seating is crucial. 

  • Ensure the student can hear when teacher speaks.

  • Ask other students to assist.

  • Never use words that is based on pity and sympathy.

0-8 Months

  • During these months, control of eye movements and eye-body coordination skills continue to improve.

  • Depth perception, which is the ability to judge if objects are nearer or farther away than other objects, is not present at birth. It is not until around the fifth month that the eyes are capable of working together to form a three-dimensional view of the world and begin to see in-depth.

  • Although an infant's colour vision is not as sensitive as an adult's, it is generally believed that babies have good colour vision by 5 months of age.

  • Most babies start crawling at about 8 months old, which helps further develop eye-hand-foot-body coordination. Early walkers who did minimal crawling may not learn to use their eyes together as well as babies who crawl a lot.

9 to 12 months

  • At around 9 months of age, babies begin to pull themselves up to a standing position. By 10 months of age, a baby should be able to grasp objects with thumb and forefinger.

  • By twelve months of age, most babies will be crawling and trying to walk. Parents should encourage crawling rather than early walking to help the child develop better eye-hand coordination.

  • Babies can now judge distances fairly well and throw things with precision.

1 to 2 years

  • By 2 years of age, a child's eye-hand coordination and depth perception should be well developed.

  • Children this age are highly interested in exploring their environment and in looking and listening. They recognize familiar objects and pictures in books and can scribble with crayons or pencils.

  • Signs of eye and vision problems

  • The presence of eye and vision problems in infants is rare. Most babies begin life with healthy eyes and start to develop the visual abilities they will need throughout life without difficulty. But occasionally, eye health and vision problems can develop. Parents need to look for the following signs that may be indications of eye and vision problems:

  • Excessive tearing may indicate blocked tear ducts.

  • Red or encrusted eyelids could be a sign of an eye infection.

  • Constant eye turning may signal a problem with eye muscle control.

  • Extreme sensitivity to light may indicate an elevated pressure in the eye.

  • The appearance of a white pupil may indicate the presence of eye cancer.

  • The appearance of any of these signs should require immediate attention by a doctor of optometry.

 

What parents can do to help with visual development:

 

There are many things parents can do to help their baby's vision develop properly. The following are some examples of age-appropriate activities that can assist an infant's visual development.

 

From Birth to 4 months

  • Use a nightlight or other dim lamp in the baby's room.

  • Change the crib's position frequently and change the child's position in it.

  • Keep reach-and-touch toys within the baby's focus, about eight to twelve inches.

  • Talk to the baby while walking around the room.

  • Alternate right and left sides with each feeding.

During 5 to 8 months

  • Hang a mobile, crib gym, or various objects across the crib for the baby to grab, pull and kick.

  • Give the baby plenty of time to play and explore on the floor.

  • Provide plastic or wooden blocks that can be held in the hands.

  • Play patty cake and other games, moving the baby's hands through the motions while saying the words aloud.

During 9 to 12 months

  • Play hide and seek games with toys or your face to help the baby develop visual memory.

  • Name objects when talking to encourage the baby's word association and vocabulary development skills.

  • Encourage crawling and creeping.

During 1 to 2 years

  • Roll a ball back and forth to help the child track objects with the eyes visually.

  • Give the child building blocks and balls of all shapes and sizes to play with to boost fine motor skills and small muscle development.

  • Read or tell stories to stimulate the child's ability to visualize and pave the way for learning and reading skills.

 

(source-https://www.aoa.org/healthy-eyes/eye-health-for-life/infant-vision?sso=y)

 

Other resources for parents and teachers

  1. https://www.webmd.com/eye-health/tips-for-parents-visually-impaired-children

  2.  https://www.teachingvisuallyimpaired.com/classroom-design-tips.html

  3. . https://www.miusa.org/resource/tipsheet/assistivetechnologyforblind